Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy 1845
- Born: 14 Mar 1820, Torino, Piemonte, Italy 1845
- Marriage (1): Maria Adelaide of Habsburg Archduchess of Austria on 12 Apr 1842 in Stupinigi, Italy 1853
- Marriage (2): Rosa Teresa Vercellano Contess of Mirafiori in 1869 1851
- Died: 9 Jan 1878, Rome, Lazio, Italy at age 57 1845
- Buried: Pantheon Church (Rome, Lazio, Italy)
Another name for Victor was Vittorio Emmanuele.1854
Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 - January 9, 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia from 1849-1861. On February 18, 1861, he assumed the title as King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy, a title he held till his death in 1878.
Victor Emmanuel was born in Turin. During the reign of his father, Charles Albert, the kingdoms of Sardinia and Piedmont were united. Charles Albert went to war in 1848 against the Austrian Empire (which ruled most of northern Italy), but was defeated at the Battle of Novara the following year. Charles Albert abdicated and Victor Emmanuel became king of Sardinia-Piedmont on March 24, 1849.
Under his command, and with the skillful action of his minister, Count Cavour, the Kingdom of Sardinia grew to include whole Italy (1860 - 1870), through the process of Italian Unification and thus Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy became Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. However Count Cavour, his trusted advisor, did most of the work, and was very powerful. Some of his goals were to a) industrialize, b) reduce influence of Catholic Church, and c) better foreign affairs, using diplomacy to make allies. Cito Emmanuel II was also excommunicated from the Roman Catholic faith after the Italian army attacked Rome and forced Pope Pius IX to retreat and form Vatican city.
Victor Emmanuel would keep the former ordinal number though he became the first king of Italy, in order to maintain the dynastical continuity. However, this proved to be unpopular with the newly unified southern Italians as it seemed to be a Piedmontese takeover.
Sardinia joined Britain and France in a war against Russia, to get their "good will". Count Cavour held a secret meeting with Napoleon III of France where he promised that if France would help Sardinia battle against Austria for the land Venetia and Lombardy, France would be given Nice and Savoy.
War of Italian Unification
Cavour and Napoleon III fought against Austria in 1858, and were winning the war, however, there were serious casualties for France. Napoleon III secretly made a treaty with Francis Joseph of Austria, where Sardinia gained Lombardy - but no more. France, however, still got Nice and Savoy. Austria kept Venetia, which displeased Sardinia. The treaty had been made without their knowledge. Soon after this Cavour died, and the king had to find other advisors. The alliance with France ended, but Italy was united by the end of Victor Emanuel's reign as Italy made an alliance with Prussia. Venice was taken with Prussian help during a war in 1866 and Rome was taken from French protection in 1871. 1845
1. Acceded: King of Sardinia, 24 Mar 1849-18 Feb 1861. 1845
2. Acceded: King of Italy, 18 Feb 1861-9 Jan 1878.
Victor married Maria Adelaide of Habsburg Archduchess of Austria, daughter of Rainer "The Older" Archduke of Austria and Maria Francesca Princess of Savoy, on 12 Apr 1842 in Stupinigi, Italy.1853 (Maria Adelaide of Habsburg Archduchess of Austria was born on 3 Jun 1822 in Milan, Lombardia, Italy 1845 and died on 20 Jan 1855 in Torino, Piemonte, Italy 1845.)
Victor next married Rosa Teresa Vercellano Contess of Mirafiori in 1869.1851 (Rosa Teresa Vercellano Contess of Mirafiori was born on 3 Jun 1833 in Moncalvo, Italy 1851 and died on 27 Dec 1885 in Pisa, Toscana, Italy 1851.)