Louis XVII King of France 1842
- Born: 27 Mar 1785 1842
- Died: 8 Jun 1795, Paris, Rhône-Alpes, France at age 10 1842
- Buried: 8 Jun 2004, Saint Denis Basilique (Saint Denis, Centre, France) 1846
Cause of his death was Tuberculosis.1846
Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 - June 8, 1795) also known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy (1785-1789), Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois (1789-1791), and Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France (1791-1793), was the son of King Louis XVI of France and Marie Antoinette. He never actually reigned as king of France.
During the French Revolution, Prince Louis was imprisoned with his parents. As the eldest living son of King Louis XVI, he was proclaimed king of France on January 28, 1793 by the declaration of his uncle, "Monsieur" (Louis-Stanislas-Xavier, the Comte de Provence) issued in exile in the city of Hamm, near Dortmund, Westphalia, a territory of the Archbishop of Cologne. The declaration at the time was without authority, since France was a republic; however, when the nation and the European powers accepted Louis-Stanislas-Xavier as Louis XVIII of France in 1815, the numbering tacitly recognized Louis XVII's rights.
While the Royal Family was being held at the forbidding prison of the Temple, he was separated from his mother and sister in the summer of 1793 to prevent any monarchist bid to free him. He remained imprisoned alone, a floor below his sister Marie-Thérèse, until his death in June, 1795. He was ironically called a "Capet", the family name that the revolutionaries applied to the French royals, Hugh Capet being the non-royal founder of the ruling dynasty's antecedents. The little boy was set to hard work as a cobbler's assistant and was taught to curse his parents. He was officially reported to have died in the prison from what is today recognized to have been tuberculosis. Reportedly, his body was ravaged by tumors and scabies. An autopsy was carried out on the child's frail body at the prison. Following a tradition of preserving royal hearts, his heart was removed by the physician, Philippe-Jean Pelletan, who smuggled it out in a handkerchief and finally preserved it in alcohol. His body was buried in a mass grave.
"Lost Dauphin" Claimants
Reports, however, quickly spread that the body was not that of Louis XVII and that he had been spirited away alive, the "Lost Dauphin", by sympathizers with another child's body left in his place. When the Bourbon monarchy was restored in 1814, hundreds of claimants came forward. Would-be royal heirs continued to pop up across Europe for decades, and some of their descendants still have small but loyal retinues of followers today. Popular candidates for the Lost Dauphin included John James Audubon, the naturalist; Eleazer Williams, a missionary from Wisconsin of Mohawk Native American descent; and Karl Wilhelm Naundorff, a German clockmaker. Mark Twain satirized the host of claimants in the characters of the Duke and the Dauphin, the con men in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
The heart changed hands many times. First it was stolen by one of Pelletan's students, who confessed on his deathbed, asking his wife to return it to Pelletan. She sent it to the Archbishop of Paris, where it stayed until the Revolution of 1830. It also spent some time in Spain. In 1975, it was being kept in a crystal vase at the royal crypt in the Saint Denis Basilica outside Paris, burial place of his parents and many other members of France's royal families. Philippe Delorme, the contemporary authority on the subject, arranged for DNA testing of the heart. A Belgian genetics professor, Jean-Jacques Cassiman of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and Ernst Brinkmann of Germany's Muenster University conducted the two independent tests. After DNA comparison with that reclaimed from the hair of Marie Antoinette proved the identity of the heart in the year 2000, the remains were finally buried in the Basilica on June 8, 2004.
It should be noted, however, that the DNA tested was Mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited only from the mother and allows tracing of a direct maternal genetic line. Assuming the two test samples weren't tampered with, the most that it proves is that the hair sample and heart sample shared maternal ancestry. The heart sample could be from any relative along Marie Antoinette's maternal line. Removal of the heart was common practice at the time and could have even come from Louis XVI's first son, Louis-Joseph-Xavier-François, who died in 1789. 1846
Died in prison
After DNA comparison with that reclaimed from the hair of Marie Antoinette proved the identity of the heart in the year 2000, the remains were finally buried in the Basilica on June 8, 2004.
1. Acceded: King of France, 21 Jan 1793-8 Jun 1795. 1846 Never Ruled